Experts from the University of Helsinki and the Lapland University of Applied Sciences tested 13 dog breeds to find the brightest.
Scientific Reports released the results, which may surprise many. Previous research called the Border Collie the smartest breed, but the Finnish study disagreed.
"Most breeds had their own strengths and shortcomings," said study author Dr. Saara Junttila of the University of Helsinki.
Border Collies performed well on most tests, but the Belgian Malinois outperformed them, according to Dr. Saara Junttila.
The second-smartest breed was Border Collies, nine points behind Belgian dogs.
Dr. Saara Junttila said, "For example, the Labrador Retriever was very adept at reading human gestures, but not so good at spatial problem-solving skills."
Experts believe that many of the breeds' strengths and shortcomings are tied to their breeding, but certain studies,
Like the one that tested dogs' capacity to recognise human motions, yielded startling findings. Herding canines like Finnish Lapphunds did poorly in this category.